Friday, August 18, 2006

தெரிந்த கேள்விகள் தெரியாத பதில்கள்- 10 ஆடல்

வாசகர்களே!! நடனத்தைப்ப் பற்றி ஞானம் கடுகளவும் இல்லாத நான் இப்பதிவை எழுதுவதற்காக என்னை மன்னிக்கவும். இங்கு நான் கற்ற சிலவற்றை உங்களுடன் பகிர்ந்து கொள்ள விரும்புகிறேன்.

கேள்விகளைப் படிக்கும் போது ' நமக்கும் இதற்கும் சம்பந்தம் இல்லை..இவை எல்லாம் நம்மால் நினைவில் வைத்துக் கொள்ள முடியாது' என்றே தோன்றும்... சுலபமான விடைகளை அறிந்தவுடன் நீங்களே சந்தோஷப் படுவீர்கள் பாருங்களேன்!!!

விடைகளுக்கு கீழே செல்லவும்

கேள்விகள்:
தாண்டவம்:
1. சிவபெருமான் காளிகா தாண்டவம் ஆடுவது எப்போது?
2. சிவபெருமான் சந்தியா தாண்டவம் ஆடுவது எப்போது?எங்கு?
3. சிவபெருமான் சங்கார தாண்டவம் ஆடுவது எப்ப்போது?
4. சிவபெருமான் திரிபுர தாண்டவம் ஆடுவது எப்போது?எங்கு?
5. சிவபெருமான் ஊர்த்துவ தாண்டவம் ஆடுவது எப்போது?எங்கு?
6. சிவபெருமான் ஆனந்த தாண்டவம் ஆடுவது எப்போது?எங்கு?
7. சிவபெருமான் கௌரி தாண்டவம் ஆடுவது எப்போது?எங்கு?
நடனம்:
8. அஜபா நடனம் என்பது என்ன? இதை சிவபெருமான் ஆடியது எங்கே?
9. உன்மத்த நடனம் என்பது என்ன? இதை சிவபெருமான் ஆடியது எங்கே?
10. தரங்க நடனம் என்பது என்ன? இதை சிவபெருமான் ஆடியது எங்கே?
11. குக்குட நடனம் என்பது என்ன? இதை சிவபெருமான் ஆடியது எங்கே?
12. பிருங்க நடனம் என்பது என்ன? இதை சிவபெருமான் ஆடியது எங்கே?
13. கமல நடனம் என்பது என்ன? இதை சிவபெருமான் ஆடியது எங்கே?
14. ஹம்சபாத நடனம் என்பது என்ன? இதை சிவபெருமான் ஆடியது எங்கே?


பதில்கள்:

சிவபெருமான் படைத்தல், காத்தல், அழித்தல் ஆகிய செயல்களைச் செய்யும் போது காளிகா, சந்தியா, சங்கார (சம்ஹார) தாண்டவம் ஆடியதாகக் கூறப்படுகிறது. இத்தாண்டவத்தைப் பற்றிய வரலாற்று கதைகளுக்கு பின்னூட்டப் பகுதியில் "காரியின்" விளக்கத்தைப் பார்க்கவும்.

1. காளிகா தாண்டவம் - படைத்தல் செய்யும் போது.
தலம் - நெல்லையப்பர் கோவில், திருநெல்வேலி. ஆடிய இடம் - தாமிர சபை (Copper)

2. சந்தியா தாண்டவம் - காத்தல் செய்யும் போது.
தலம்- மீனாட்சி அம்மன் கோவில்,மதுரை. ஆடிய இடம் - வெள்ளி அம்பலம் (Silver)

3. சங்கார தாண்டவம் - அழித்தல் செய்யும் போது.
தலம்- மதுரை என்கிறார்கள் சிலர்.தெரிந்தால் சொல்லவும்.

4. திரிபுர தாண்டவம் - மறைத்தல் செய்யும் போது.
தலம்- குற்றாலநாதர் கோவில், குற்றாலம். ஆடிய் இடம் - சித்திர(Art) சபை.

5. ஊர்த்தவ தாண்டவம் - அருளல் செய்யும் போது.
தலம்- ஊர்த்தவதாண்டவர் கோவில், திருவாலங்காடு, ஆடிய இடம் - இரத்தின(gem) சபை.

6 ஆனந்த தாண்டவம் - இவ்வைந்து செயல்களையும் செய்யும் இடம்.
தலம்- நடராஜர் கோவில், சிதம்பரம். ஆடிய இடம் - கனக (Sky) சபை.

7. கௌரி தாண்டவம் - பார்வதிக்காக ஆடிய போது.
தலம்- திருப்பத்தூர்.

8. அஜபா நடனம்- சிவபெருமான் மேல்மூச்சில், கீழ்மூச்சில் (தவளை போல்) அசைந்தாடிய நடனம். ஆடிய தலம்- திருவாரூர். இது சம்பந்தப்பட்ட மிக சுவாரஸ்யமான கதையைப் பின்னூட்டப் பகுதியில் பார்க்கவும்.

9. சிவபெருமான் பித்தனைப் போல் தலை சுற்றி ஆடிய நடனம் உன்மத்த நடனம் ஆகும். ஆடிய தலம்- திருநள்ளாறு.

10.தரங்க நடனம் என்பது கடல் அலைபோல் அசைந்து ஆடுவது. இதை சிவபெருமான் நாகப்பட்டினத்தில் ஆடினார்.

11. குக்குட நடனம் என்பது கோழி போல் ஆடுவது. ஆடிய தலம் - திருக்காறாயில்.

12. பிருங்க நடனம் என்பது வண்டு மலரைக் குடைவது போல் ஆடுவது. இதை சிவபெருமான் ஆடியது இடம் திருக்கோளிலி ஆகும்.

13. கமல நடனம் என்பது தாமரை காற்றில் அசைவது போல் ஆடுவது. ஆடிய தலம்-திருவாய்மூர்.

14. ஹம்சபாத நடனம் என்பது அன்னம் போல் அடியெடுத்து ஆடுவது. ஆடிய தலம் - திருமறைக்காடு (வேதாரண்யம்)

தொடரும்..

25 comments:

தி. ரா. ச.(T.R.C.) said...

2. piarathisha kaalaththil
ella sivav kovilkaLilum vaana veethiyil
8. chithamparam. namathu parananutaiya movement mathiri munnum pinnum aduvathu

Priya said...

i am sorry 2nd answer adhu illa..
8thkku munnum pinnum illa but u r close to it:)-

Jeevan said...

சிவபெருமான் ஆனந்த தாண்டவம் ஆடுவது எப்போது? When he was very happy. correct'a:)

kari_the_sin said...

The concept of Lord Shiva in his manifestation as the Supreme dancer has come down over thousands of years. In his form as Nataraja, Lord of the Dance, he is worshipped predominantly by Saivites in South India and Sri Lanka. Mythology relating to the many dances of the Lord has led him to be credited with the creation of dance as an art form. This inspired the sage Bharata to write his thesis Natya Sastra over 2000 years ago, and which forms the basis of the different styles of dance to this day. The nine Thandavas of the Lord together with other dances in his varied manifestations has given rise to exquisite sculptures in bronze and stone seen in temples dedicated to the Lord. According to the Tirupathur Puranam five of these Thandavas depicting the fivefold activity of the Lord took place at five Sabhas in temples in Tamil Nadu. They are :

1. The Kallika Thandavam indicating Creation is seen at the Thamara Sabha (copper plated roof) at the Nelliappa temple in Tirunelveli

2. The Sandhya Thandavam at the Velliambalam (silver hall) at the Meenakshi- Sundareshwara temple in Madurai depicts Protection.

3. The Tiripura Thandavam depicting Veiling or Obscuration is seen at the Chitra Sabha at the temple at Courtallam.

4. The Urthava Thandavam denoting the act of blessing is found at the Ratna Sabha at the temple at Tiruvalangadu.

5. The Ananda Thandavam which depicts all his fivefold activities is seen in the renowned Kanaga-Sabha (Ponnambalam) at Thillai (Chidambaram).

The Kallika Thandavam derives its name from Kali or Durga who represents power or energy, and hence the first phase of this power is considered as Creation. This dance took place in the presence of sages in the Thamara Sabha which stands apart from the main temple and is noted for its fine and artistic carvings on wood.

The Sandhya Thandavam depicting protection took place, according to legend, during the marriage festivities of Sundareshwara and Meenakshi. The two devotees Patanjali and Vyagrapada came to Madurai to attend the divine marriage. They proposed to leave for Chidambaram before the marriage feast to witness the dance of the Lord at the Kanaga-Sabha at noon. In order that they remain the Lord promised to dance at Madurai. Rajasekera Pandyan felt that the Lord should rest his right foot and dance on his left foot. He complied, and icons of this dance, both in bronze and granite are seen in the Velliambalam in Madurai. In another legend the Sandhya Thandavam is said to have taken place at twilight in the presence of Parvati and other gods.

The legend of Lord Shiva's destruction of the three cities gave rise to the Tiripura Thandavam. It is represented by a painting executed by Brahma who was a witness to the dance. Hence the Sabha at the temple at Courtallam is known as the Chitra Sabha. The legend states that the Asuras Kamalam, Kamalaksham and Vithyumali after performing severe penance built three flying cities and obtained the boon that they could not be destroyed except by a single arrow. In keeping with their true nature they plundered, terrorised, and destroyed holy places, secure in the knowledge that they could not be easily destroyed. According to the Upanishads, the gods pleaded with Lord Shiva that only he could destroy these three cities. The Lord agreed and rode his chariot while Vishnu manifested himself as the flaming arrow, Vishnu Sashta, and chased the flying cities. At a point when they were all in a straight line he released the arrow destroying the three cities. The Tiripura Thandavam celebrates his victory, and represents his activity of Veiling or Obscuration.

The act of blessing is represented by the Urthava Thandavam seen at the Ratna Sabha at the temple in Tiruvalangadu. In a competition with his Divine Consort, unable to maintain the rhythm of her dancing any more, he raised his right foot upto his head. The bashful Consort could not repeat this act of the Lord, and his dance with this pose is known as the Urthava Thandavam. The legend associated with this dance tells of the woman saint Karaikkal Ammaiyar, an ardent devotee of the Lord, who received the boon that changed her beauteous form to that of a wraith, in order that she could worship the Lord without worldly encumbrances or attachments. She was then filled with an overpowering desire to go to Kailas. On nearing her destination she felt the ground too holy for her feet and started walking on her hands. On reaching Kailas she prayed that when the Lord danced she should be near his feet. Thereupon the Lord commanded her to go to the ancient town of Tiruvalangadu where she witnessed the Urthava Thandavam.

The Ananda Thandavam which depicts the fivefold activity of the Lord took place at the Kanaga-Sabha of the temple of Lord Nataraja at Chidambaram - the holiest Saivite shrine in South India. It is the cosmic dance which reflects the process of Creation, Preservation, and Destruction. In this Thandavam the Lord is depicted with four hands braided and jewelled hair on which rests the Ganges, the crescent moon and the cobra. One right hand holds the drum from which rises Creation, the other lifted in Abhaya pose indicates Protection. One left hand holds the fire depicting destruction, while the other points to his raised left foot which shows that there lies the refuge of the soul. His right foot placed on the dwarf Muyalakan denotes divine supremacy in a battle against evil. It has been said that in this form as Anandamoorthy with his Consort Sivagamasundari on his left he represents divinity in its fullest meaning.

According to mythology the other four Thandavams are :

1. Gauri Thandavam
2. Samhara Thandavam.
3. Gajamuha Samhara Thandavam.
4. Andhakasura Thandavam.

The Gauri Thandavam is found in the Chit Sabha at the temple at Tirupathur. It was performed at the request of the Divine Consort who wished for a vision of the dance.

The Samhara Thandavam which depicts destruction and annihilation and said to take place at midnight, finds no representation anywhere.

The Gajamuha Samhara Thandavam is based on the legend that over 8000 sages living near the town of Mayavaram (now called Mayil Aadum Thurai) professed that Karma was an end in itself. The Lord appeared before them and tried to correct their concepts. In their rage they set an elephant against Him. The Lord ripped the elephant and performed a dance on the head of the elephant. This Thandavam denotes his victory over the elephant which represents the ego.

According to mythology the Lord opened his third eye and lit up the Universe. The intense heat resulted in drops of perspiration falling from the fingers of the Divine Consort. From these drops was created the Andhaka Asura who was blind from birth due to the dazzling light. By doing severe penance he obtained his vision from Brahma. However his spiritual vision was still impaired and he became infatuated with the beauty of Parvati and coveted her. The Lord in his anger destroyed Andhaka by impaling him with his trident and thereafter lifted his body with the tip of his trident and performed the Andhaka Asura Thandavam.

Apart from these nine Thandavas, the Lord performed many dances in his varied manifestations. Among them his dance of victory and his dance of grief subsequent to the destruction of Daksha's sacrifice has been represented by sculptures both in bronze and stone. The myth states that Daksha did not invite Lord Shiva to the great sacrifice he was preparing as he found him socially unacceptable. His Consort went to plead with her father to invite the Lord. In the presence of the other gods and sages Daksha abused the Lord, and Sati unable to bear the humiliation leapt into the sacrificial flames. The news of Sati's death shocked the Lord and in his anger stormed Daksha's sacrifice in his manifestation as Virabhadra destroyed it and beheaded Daksha. He then danced with the dead Sati on his shoulder to celebrate the destruction. Once his fury abated only his grief remained. With a discus in his right hand his fiery dance of grief troubled the world. Finally Vishnu using the discus dismembered Sati's body which was scattered all over India.

In another dance form as Kalarimurti, the Lord displays his mastery over both time and death. According to mythology there lived in the village of Tirukaddaiyur a young devotee Markandeyar who was doomed to die at the age of sixteen. When Yama, the God of Death, arrived to take him, the boy clung to the Lingam he was worshipping. Yama in his haste threw the noose round the young Markandeyar which also encircled the Lingam. Lord Shiva in his anger at this sacrilege emerged from the Lingam and slew Yama with his Trident. In his victory dance he symbolises the fact that he has power to intervene on behalf of a devotee, and in a wider context his power over death and time.

The Lord in his form as Bhairava cut off one of Brahma's four heads as a sequel to being insulted by him. Thereafter he performs a terrifying dance when the Universe trembled. Brahma finally apologised and accepted the supremacy of Lord Shiva. However, Bhairava had to expiate the sin of Brahminicide.

These Thandavas and dances have inspired sculptors of both bronze and stone to depict various dance poses of the Lord. These include the 108 Karanas which are found at the entrances to the temple of Lord Nataraja at Chidambaram. They are also seen at the Brihadeeshwara temple in Tanjore, the Arunachaleshwara temple at Tiruvannamalai and the Shiva temple at Kumbakonam. Among the unusual dance poses are those of the Lord dancing with a staff surmounted by a Nandi Bikshatana wearing sandals and carrying a begging bowl, Arthanathiswara (mainly in Orissa), and Vinadhara, a form of Dakshinamoorthy playing the Veena. There are many graceful variations of sculptures of the Urthava Thandavam a very interesting Karanam is that known as Gangavatharanam where the Lord is seen in a pose with his head down dancing with one hand on the dwarf Muyalakan and his feet upraised. It depicts the story of how the Lord took the brunt of the fall of the Ganga from the skies onto his matted locks.

The close association between myth and dance forms a fascinating aspect of Hindu culture. It has given rise to many beautiful sculptures, the most exquisite being that of the Ananda Thandavam, universally acclaimed as a masterpiece of South Indian art. These sculptures have also inspired a variety of dances by renowned artistes, thereby giving much pleasure to audiences all over the world, and spirituality in the minds of thousands of devotees. Ancient scholars described Nataraja as the great Cosmic dancer who resides in the hearts and minds of men generating the rhythm of life, and one of them Tirumoolar in his Tirumandiram wrote " The dance of Shiva takes place in the heart of every individual".


I thank Ms Nirmala Ramachandran to provide the answers in such depth and detail.

kari_the_sin said...

By the way Priya,
did you get the answers to all the questions you had posted on my blog?? just curious!!!

kari_the_sin said...

Vishnu worshipped lord shiva for a long time to get a beautiful child withstanding inclement weather . Shiva very satisfied with his penance appeared before him with his wife Umadhaevi and asked what he wanted. Vishnu conveyed his message and while doing this he forgot to even salute her . Devi obviously aggravated of his disrespect cursed him with a son who would die of his bad deeds. Vishnu realizing the sin he commited , pleaded again to god and goddess to show mercy on him . Umadevi then blessed him with a child who would die of Shivas anger and then take rebirth .While then Shiva was with Devi and Skanda in between them . Vishnu very pleased with that form of appearance requested Shiva that they blessed him with a icon of that form . That is Thiyagaraaja . He kept the icon in his mind and every breath in and out would make the icon dance in rhythm resulting in what is called "Ajabaa Nadanam ( Dance like a frog )",

Then Devalokam was tortured by Asuras. Indira came to vishnu for help . Vishnu then gave the idol to Indhira and told him to worship that to get rid of Asuras. He did so and defeated all the Asuras . A very happy Indhran worshipped the idol for a long time .

Then again another asura by name Valan battled Devalokam and was causing all kinds of hardfship for the devas . Indhran could not defeat him alone ; so decided that he would take the help of Muchukundan , a Choezha king ruling Thiruvarur then . He brought him to Indralokam and fought the war and won it. Indran then asked Muchukundan what he wanted as a gift for the victory . Muchukundan was an ardent devotee of Shiva and Shiva said to his ears alone to ask for the Thiyagaraaja idol . He asked promptly . Indhra , half-mindedly , not willing to lose Thyagaraaja at the same time trying to keep his word showed a total of 7 idols with 6 other copies or forms of the same original . Muchukundha , due to his divine blessing correctly identified the original . Indharan then gave all the 7 idols to him. This is how Thiyagaraaja came to Thiruvarur . The 7 idols are installed in Thiruvarur , Thirukkuvalai , Thiruvaimur , Thirukkaravasal , ThiruNallar , Vedaranyam and Nagappattinam . These temples are called SapthaVidanga Temples .

kari_the_sin said...

As far as i know Unmada means (insanity). so may be there was a dance related to it.

kari_the_sin said...

10,11,12,13,14 are tough! Tryin hard to get the answers

Priya said...

kari,
awesome... its very nice to know the stories around these thandavams.. i was not aware of the ajaba thandavam stories...
thanks again!!
good luck for the rest of the questions..
and btw, i have given answers to many of the questins in the prev post which were on top of my head.. i need to refer back reg answers to some questions!!

Priya said...

jeevan!!
ananda thandavam 'engu'nradhu dhaan easyaana kelvi??

kari_the_sin said...

I wanted to know about your querry about god and which form is best suited for kali yuga? Do you remember.
I have provided an explanation for that in my blog along with a choosen collection of upanishads.
I want you to read them and let me know if your questions were answered through the explantion given in the blog.

kari_the_sin said...

hi,
I may be way out on a limb here.

Can I discuss about your research work here at this forum?

If so here are some curious questions.I was a little curious about the subject-"toxicology" you are doing research on.
Is it toxicology or toxinology?
Is toxicology about poisoning ?
Do you believe that everything is a poison with the wrong/right dose?

Priya said...

kari
will read when i am free.. thanks..
no toxicology talk here please..

kari_the_sin said...

ok,
then shower me with your questions when ever you get time.
Sry for the toxicology questions.:(

om tat sat said...

priya,
Thanks for the notification in my
blog about the addition of new
questions. I've gone thro' them and
guess this time you've picked the
topic of divine dance. I'll find
the answers as much as i can and will share here.

Om

Priya said...

om tat sat
i just posted answers yesterday.. thanks for visiting!!

om tat sat said...

Pretty useful facts :) Keep up with
the enthusiasm and zeal.

Om.

Priya said...

thanks om tat sat,
keep visiting!!

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yirus said...

சிவமயம்...

நன்றி

Anonymous said...

Il semble que vous soyez un expert dans ce domaine, vos remarques sont tres interessantes, merci.

- Daniel

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Sachi Gobi said...

அருமையான பதில்கள் நன்றி

Sachi Gobi said...

அருமையான பதில்கள் நன்றி

Karthi Keyan said...

மதுரை – வரகுன பாண்டியனுக்கு காலமாறி {வலதுபாதம்} தூக்கி ஆடியது.

Madurayil than.